If Multiculturalism ‘has failed’, then a better understanding of what concepts such as citizenship, tolerance and value congruence mean to society is required. Modern societies are hybrid versions of the traditional culture and new influences (Claeye & van Meurs, 2013) and within each society, in/out group dynamics among subcultures may cause ethnocentric tension (e.g, Berry, 2009; Pratto et al, 1994). Johnston et al., (2004) found that respondents’ views on citizenship reflect complex mixtures of liberalism and communitarianism. This paper explored how individuals perceive themselves to fit in with their nation based on adapted work from the Person-Environment Fit theory in order to establish societal level Person-Nation Fit (P-N Fit). Citizenship, cultural intelligence and perceptions of intercultural encounters were linked to P-N Fit and belief in group equality. The qualitative study involved 16 participants from anti-fascist groups in Britain. Results showed a denouncement of national identity but a sense of citizenship based on proximal factors. For the quantitative study, 238 students were surveyed. Results showed that Demands-Abilities Fit and cultural intelligence positively predicted a belief in the equality of groups, whereas having experienced negative emotions when meeting people from other cultures linked negatively with beliefs of group equality. Having these negative emotions, low genetic essentialism and strong political leanings predicted citizenship as “A person who has legal rights and duties”. The results highlighted the complexity of communitarianism and liberalism in terms of views on citizenship, and a requirement to re-negotiate the conceptualisation of a multicultural society.
This abstract, titled “Person-Nation Fit and group equality: Defining an individual’s tolerance in a multicultural society“, has been accepted for the annual meeting of the International Association of Cross Cultural Psychology in Reims, France this summer.